This is based on the 1993 "Copenhagen criteria" agreed as it became clear many former Eastern Bloc countries would apply to join; Membership requires that candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, respect for and protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union. Austrians comprise 1.7% of the total EU population. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was proposed by Robert Schuman in his declaration on 9 May 1950 and involved the pooling of the coal and steel industries of France and West Germany. Of the bloc's 28 member countries… Page last updated at 09:54 GMT, Monday, 12 March 2007. There is no requirement in the UK to hold a referendum on a new country joining the EU - but it can do that if it chooses to. Austria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is €337.162 billion, as per 2015. French President Charles de Gaulle vetoed British membership.[14]. Attitudes of even skeptical citizens, do not discard the possibility on future sustainable enlargements. The EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993. The EU was not always as big as it is today. The Copenhagen criteria stated in 1993 that a country must be a democracy, operate a free market, and be willing to adopt the entire body of EU law already agreed upon. The EU grew out of the European Economic Community (EEC) which was established by the Treaties of Rome in 1957. Also in 1993 the European Economic Area was established with the EFTA states except Switzerland. The only country in Europe that continues to execute in the 21st century is Belarus (last execution done in 2019). [8] In November 2019, France proposed a seven-stage accession plan for membership. They also wanted to join the project of European integration and ensure they did not fall back into the Russian sphere of influence. Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, also known as the. The SAA entered into force in June 2015. The process from application for association agreement through accession has taken far longer, as much as several decades (Turkey for example first applied for association in the 1950s and has yet to conclude accession negotiations). The EU has been clear Scotland would need to apply afresh, alongside other applicants. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020*, the first former EU country. The UK first applied to join the EU in 1961. [44] On 3 October 1990, the reunification of East and West Germany brought East Germany into the Community without increasing the number of member states. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries in the Kingdom of Netherlands, and remain overseas territories of the European Union. The three territories of members of the EU that withdrew include Greenland, Saint Barthélemey, and French Algeria. Hungary is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - who exercises executive power and a head of state - the president - whose primary responsibilities are representative. The political system is a Federal Parliamentary Republic and its currency is the Euro (€), sinc… The European Union (EU) is a unification of 28 member states (including the United Kingdom) united to create a political and economic community throughout Europe. [66] Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo*[67] are recognized as potential candidates for membership by the EU. The country could adopt the single euro currency on January 1, 2015. If they are granted this status, it means that the country (now called a “candidate country”) will begin the process of negotiating to join the EU. [78], accession process of new countries to the European Union, Adélie Land, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands and Saint-Paul-and-Amsterdam Islands merged to become the French Southern and Antarctic Lands on 1955-08-06. The Conservatives were also campaigning to stay in the Common Market. i can't find the information. In the end, eight Central and Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia), plus two Mediterranean countries (Malta and Cyprus) were able to join on 1 May 2004. Of the countries that joined the EU in 2004, it is the biggest that now remain on the outside: Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. In 1962, Spain, ruled by the military dictator Francisco Franco, issued its first attempt to join the European Communities. Schimmelfennig, F., Börzel, T. A., Kortenska, E., Langbein, J., & Toshkov, D. Enlargement and the Integration Capacity of the EU Interim Scientific Results. The EEA includes the EU countries and also Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. The following is an example of the accession process—Estonia's path to membership from its declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in November 1991 with recognition from the EU the same month to membership in May 2004. [47] The official EU media (the speeches of the European Commission) frequently referred to the enlargement to the CEE region as "an historical opportunity" and "morally imperative", which reflected the desire of the EU to admit these countries as members, even though they were less developed than the Western European countries. Although eventually trying to limit the number of members, and after encouragement from the US, the EU pursued talks with ten countries and a change of mind[clarification needed] by Cyprus and Malta helped to offset slightly the influx of large poorer member states from Central and Eastern Europe.[45]. The European Council set out the conditions for EU membership in June 1993 in the so-called Copenhagen criteria (see Criteria above for details). Most of the new EEA states pursued full EU membership as the EEA did not sufficiently satisfy the needs of their export based corporations. These steps are primarily presided over by the European Commission (Enlargement Commissioner and DG Enlargement), but the actual negotiations are technically conducted between the Union's Member States and the candidate country. South Sudan is officially referred to as the Republic of South Sudan and is located in East-Central Africa. All territories were already outside the ECSC and the merged territory retained the same status, Senegal and the Sudanese Republic merged on 1959-04-04 to create the Mali Federation, Renamed French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967, Became independent as the Kingdom of Ruanda and the Kingdom of Burundi, Including the County of Greenland, which later gained home rule and left the EC, The UK co-administered the condominium of the Canton and Enderbury Islands with the USA, until the UK merged it with its Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony on 1975-01-01 to create its Gilbert Islands colony. A chapter is said to be closed when both sides have agreed it has been implemented sufficiently, however it can still be re-opened if the Commission feels that the candidate has fallen out of compliance. Albania and the several successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have all adopted EU integration as an aim of foreign policy. Bulgaria and Romania are not yet members of the Schengen area; however, their citizens can travel visa-free to the other EU countries. Favourite answer. The treaty also introduces European citizenship giving Europeans the right to live and vote in elections in any EU country and launches European cooperation in foreign affairs security asylum and immigration. [14] However François Mitterrand initially opposed their membership fearing they were not ready and it would water the community down to a free trade area.[15]. Favourite answer. As part of the deal for British entry, France agreed to allow the EEC its own monetary resources. Decisions were taken by the Council on a proposal from the Commission. ", in: eur-lex.europa.eu –, Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the, Post-Brexit United Kingdom relations with the European Union, Statistics relating to enlargement of the European Union, 1973 enlargement of the European Communities, 1981 enlargement of the European Communities, 1986 enlargement of the European Communities, Netherlands Antilles Association Convention, Potential enlargement of the European Union, presidency of the Council of the European Union, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, "State of the Union: ROADMAP FOR A MORE UNITED, STRONGER AND MORE DEMOCRATIC UNION 2017", "Juncker in the 2017 State of the EU: We must maintain a credible enlargement perspective for the Western Balkans", "Serbia on course for EU by 2025, top EU official says", "PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS : Copenhagen European Council - 21-22 June 1993", Article : A success for Konstantinos Karamanli, "EU anger as France blocks move into Balkans", "6 countries write to Juncker to support EU enlargement reform", "European Commission - Enlargement: Archives Country Profiles", Timetable for accession negotiations by chapter and by country (1998–2004), Beyond Enlargement Fatigue? History The effect of this was that EFTA states found it harder to export to the EEC and businesses (including large EFTA corporations such as Volvo) wished to relocate within the new single market making the downturn worse for EFTA. Relevance. The 1970s also saw Greece, Spain, and Portugal emerge from dictatorship. There was no enlargement until the 1970s. Additionally, for more than eight years every single opinion poll published in Iceland has had a solid majority against joining the EU. The EU and NATO offered a guarantee of this, and the EU was also seen as vital to ensuring the economic success of those countries. [72], Not all enlargement negotiations have ended with the accession of a new member state. All those countries will have the massive language barrier (English is the international language), and may not be so welcoming / no community already there. 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