... Download & View Cie Igcse Biology 0610 Atp Znotes as PDF for free. Chinese – First Language – 0509. These functions. 16.11 Fertilization  Expulsion: Powerful Contraction pushes baby out. oDirect contact e.g.  Starch: Add few drops of iodine, +ve result = blue-black  When the temperature is too low there is not enough colour kinetic energy for the reaction so it reacts too slowly. 14.2 Types of Neurons 4. PAGE 24 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610  Day 28 – Scenario 1: Egg not fertilized  Development of foetus: zygote is changed through o No implantation takes place, the Corpus Luteum growth (mitosis) and development (organization of cells degenerates, causing a lack of progesterone. pulse rate and narrows blood vessels which can cause o All other fungi produce via spores.  Flour, sugar, water and salt are mixed with yeast to make the dough. Washing powders: 20.5 Genetic Engineering  Biological washing powders and liquids contain enzyme  Genetic engineering: changing the genetic material of an that help remove stain organism by removing, changing or inserting individual  The enzymes are coated with a special wax that melts in genes the wash releasing the enzyme  Examples of genetic engineering:  Once the stains have been broken down, they are easier othe insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce human insulin for detergents to remove othe insertion of genes into crop plants to confer  Proteases break down proteins in stains e.g. The syllabus includes the basic principles and concepts that are fundamental to the subject, some current applications of biology, and a strong emphasis on practical skills. IN CO2 CONC. organisms. into tissues and organs) o This means that endometrium is no longer thick, back to Day 1  Umbilical cord: contains umbilical artery which carries deoxygenated blood and waste products from foetus to  Day 28 – Scenario 2: Egg is fertilized placenta and umbilical vein which carries oxygenated o Implantation occurs. cactus and marram grass  Hydrophytes: live in wholly or partly submerged in  In a group of many bacteria, one might mutate to be water. The syllabus includes the main theoretical concepts which are fundamental to the subject, some current applications of biology, and a strong emphasis on advanced practical skills.  Perform the starch test on both plants. Child Development – 0637. PAGE 15 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610 11.4 Breathing BREATHING OUT 12.2 Anaerobic Respiration BREATHING IN  External intercostal  Release of a relatively small amount of energy by the muscles relax – rib cage breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen. Biology (9-1) – 0970. Biology – 0610 – IGCSE – 2005. death, malaria causes death, but the carriers have immunity to malaria and have some symptoms of  IA and IB are co-dominant giving blood group AB or IAIB, anaemia, in severe cases they are very weak. spiders) o 2 body segment – cephalothorax and abdomen o Four pairs of legs o Pair of chelicerae to hold prey o Two pedipalps for reproduction o Simple eyes  Myriapods: (e.g. TRANSPORT IN PLANTS  Eating food with low sugar content 8.1 Xylem and Phloem  Regular and effective teeth brushing to remove plaque  Finishing a meal with a crisp vegetable and a glass of  Functions of xylem and phloem o To transport substances from source, where they are water taken in or made, to the sinks, where they are used o To support the stem 7.11 Chemical Digestion Root Stem  Where enzymes are used to break down large insoluble substances such as proteins into smaller soluble Leaf substances like amino acids so that they can be absorbed. as a level biology teacher s guide.pdf : as and a level biology notes.pdf : as and a level biology practical notes.pdf : as and a level biology revision guide.pdf : cambridge international as and a level biology revision guide.pdf : cie-a2-biology-9700-practical-v1-znotes.pdf : cie-a2-biology-9700-theory-v1-znotes.pdf WHY?  Symptoms/signs:  They only affect the target organs which have receptors o Pain or burning when passing urine which can recognize them. height in humans trap moist air PAGE 28 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610 oWaxy leaf cuticle, impermeable water 18.6 Resistant Antibiotic oStomata opening at night and closed at midday when  Strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are developing as evaporation is highest the use of antibiotics is increasing. Biology (US) – 0438. Business Studies – 0450. Business Studies (9-1) – 0986. when bending the elbow the triceps are o A sensory neurone carries impulse from the receptor the antagonist to the CNS o Connector/relay neurone carries impulse slowly  Sense organ: groups of receptor cells responding to (because it has no myelin sheath) across the spinal specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chord chemicals.  Nitrifying bacteria convert nitrogen-containing  Primary consumer only gets between 5-10% because substances into better nitrogen-containing substances some parts are indigestible (e.g. store. 18.4 Natural Selection  Energy flow is not a cycle; it starts from the sun and then  The greater chance of passing on of genes by the best that energy is harnessed by plants which are eaten by adapted organisms. temperature and pH o Air provides oxygen 20.3 Uses of Enzymes for aerobic respiration in fungus Pectinase: o Water-cooled jacket  Fruit juices are extracted using pectinase (breaks down removes heat to maintain temperature pectin) of 24C. But using strong bones and teeth fertilisers can lead to eutrophication, which is when the IRON Making haemoglobin FIBER Provides bulk for faeces, helps peristalsis fertiliser is transported by rain and leaches into stagnant WATER Chemical reactions, solvent for transport water e.g. All the A-level biology lessons and resources have been created by an experienced biology lecturer. around edge of retina so clearly when being you can see things most directly looked at.  Chlorophyll is a dye, which traps light energy and AB  The leaves of Plant A will turn black after the starch test converts it into chemical energy for the formation of  The leaves of Plant B will remain orange/brown after carbohydrates and their subsequent storage. Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. from contaminated surfaces/food, from  Lymph node contains many lymphocytes which filter lymph. CIE. Notes. mother to infant  Memory cells are not produced in passive immunity  Babies get passive immunity by breast feeding. Moist tube of muscle, flexible and water), and is used in aerobic respiration.  Insects: (e.g. doubling the yield  Water moves up due to  Optimum temperature: thermostatically controlled transpiration and osmosis heaters make the temperature right for enzymes to work  Optimum light: light has a high intensity for more photosynthesis, the correct wavelengths (red and blue not green) and duration controls production of fruit PAGE 8 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610 6.8 Phloem 7.1 Malnutrition  Bidirectional vessel  A condition caused by eating an unbalanced diet.  The fact that it is recessive means that a heterozygous person can be a carrier: they have the allele but it is not expressed. PLANT NUTRITION  Photosynthesis: process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from 6.3 Carbon Dioxide is Necessary for Photosynthesis light. t or g) molecules o the specific order of amino acids is determined by the  Pedigree diagrams: sequence of bases in the mRNA  All body cells in an organism contain the same genes, but many genes in a particular cell are not expressed because the cell only makes the specific proteins it needs PAGE 27 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610 Genetic diagrams:  Discontinuous variation is caused by genes alone and 1:1 Monohybrid Crosses results in a limited number of distinct phenotypes (e.g. CIE IGCSE Biology: Revision Notes. Free CAIE IGCSE Biology (0610) Theory Characteristics and Classification of Living Organisms summarized revision notes written for students, by students.  Bur (external)  Sycamore 16.5 Pollination  Pollination: transfer of pollen grains from the male part SELF POLLINATION CROSS POLLINATION of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma). and both dominant to IO.  Fast: no need to find  No variation  Liver is the site of breakdown of alcohol and other toxins mate, fertilise etc. the alleles present (e.g.  Gland: produces enzymes  Lacteal: absorbs fatty acid and glycerol  Epithelium: only one cell thick for faster transport. diffuse into cells surface area 9.4 ECG Trace  Capillary beds constantly  The electrical activity of the heart can be monitored supplied with fresh by the electrocardiogram, pulse rate and listening to the sounds of the valves closing blood, so diffusion occurs  Physical activity makes the heart beat more quickly  Useful substances move out of plasma of capillaries into and more deeply, for an increased circulation of blood so that more oxygen and glucose can get to the tissue fluid (fluid in between cells in tissues) muscle  Cells need oxygen and nutrients, and produce waste products such as CO2 & useful products such as hormone  Capillaries are constantly supplied with new blood, otherwise diffusion could not occur  Lungs → heart  Heart → Lungs 9.5 Coronary Heart Disease = Pulmonary vein = Pulmonary artery  Liver → heart  Heart → Liver  Coronary artery becomes blocked, interrupting the supply of blood to the heart muscle. This hinders biodiversity. around the body as the heart pumps the oxygenated blood to it from the lungs  Wilting: occurs if water loss is greater than water uptake – cells become flaccid, tissues become limp and plant no longer supported 8.5 Uptake of Water 9.2 The Heart  Caused by water loss in leaves which lowers its water Bicuspid potential  Water moves from xylem to leaf tissues via osmosis  Water moves up the stem in the xylem due to tension (because of cohesion of water molecules to each other) caused by water loss from the leaves  Ends with the gain of water through roots  This upward flow of water is called the transpiration stream 8.6 Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration Septum  Temperature: higher temperatures increase water-  Right atrium: collect deoxygenated blood & pump it to holding capacity of air and increases transpiration rate right ventricle  Humidity: low humidity increases water potential  Right ventricle: pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs gradient between leaf and atmosphere  increasing transpiration rate  Light intensity: high light intensity causes stomata to open (to allow more photosynthesis) which causes increase in transpiration PAGE 12 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610  Pulmonary artery: carries deoxygenated blood from  The heart muscle cells are deprived of oxygen & glucose, right ventricle to lungs and poisonous wastes such as lactic acid build up.  Log phase: exponential growth occurs, the conditions AIR IN AIR are ideal and maximum growth rate is reached. 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Complete and updated to … ZNotes Education Limited is incorporated and registered in England and Wales, under Registration number: 12520980 whose Registered office is at: Office 14 Cedar House, 58 Peregrine Road, Ilford, IG6 3SZ. in host o 2 pairs of antennae sensitive to touch and chemicals  Two examples of virus structure  Arachnids: (e.g.  Place a stencil over part of a leaf  Place the leaf in sunlight for 4-6 hours  Biological washing powders: enzymes are added to  Remove the stencil and test for starch washing powders to help remove stains for example:  +ve result = parts which received light turn black o Lipase for lipids from fatty foods and greasy  -ve result = parts which didn’t receive light remain fingerprints o Protease for proteins from blood stains yellow/brown  Food industry: o Isomerase converts glucose to fructose which is sweeter, so less is needed to give a sweet taste o Pectinase helps break down cell walls in fruit juice production so it increases yield, lowers viscosity and reduces cloudiness 6. Files: cambridge igcse biology practical teacher s guide.pdf : cambridge igcse biology revision guide_public.pdf : cie-igcse-biology-0610-atp-v2-znotes.pdf organism to the next, beginning with a producer oEnergy is transferred between organisms in a food  Evolution is caused by natural selection which is caused by a change in the environment chain by ingestion  Producer: an organism that makes its own organic 18.5 Artificial Selection nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through  Is breeding organisms with valued characteristics photosynthesis together in order to try to produce offspring which  Consumer: an organism that gets its energy by feeding shares those useful characteristics (selective breeding). The loss of water from the filtrate in the  Nerve impulse: an electrical signal that passes along previous stage increases the salt concentration.  Agonist: a muscle that contracts while another relaxes; e.g. secretes mucus  Temperature: must be suitable for enzymes to work (at optimum temperature).  The limiting factor is now light or temperature (warmth) Temperature  As temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis increases until it reaches optimum temperature 40°c (a)  The limiting factor is the temperature  Increasing the temperature above 40°c will cause the enzymes to denature (b)  This will decrease rate of photosynthesis 6.5 Glasshouse Systems 6.7 Xylem To increase the crop yield, farmers control the limiting  Unidirectional vessel which transports water and dissolved factors: minerals. oThey are plants with roots, stems and leaves o Cytoplasm: where chemical reactions take place oHave leaves called fronds o Nucleus: contains DNA and controls the cell oReproduce by spores o Mitochondria: organelle where aerobic respiration  Flowering plants: happens oThey are plants with roots, stems and leaves o Ribosome: makes protein and can be found floating within the cytoplasm oReproduce sexually by means of flowers and seeds  A typical animal cell (e.g. leaves o Summer & early autumn: sucrose goes from  Water passes photosynthesizing leaves to root stores, through the cortex cells by osmosis 9. The syllabus includes the main theoretical concepts which are fundamental to the subject, a section on some current applications of biology, and a strong emphasis on advanced practical skills. as faeces, through the anus. Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology (9700) Notes Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology builds on the skills acquired at Cambridge IGCSE (or equivalent) level. only carry an “X” chromosome, and a male gamete can 17.5 Monohybrid Inheritance carry either an “X” or “Y” chromosome; females are “XX” while males are “XY”.  Amylase breaks down some starch to make maltose and glucose. Two identical homozygous o Made from long chains of amino acids (20) individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding o DNA bases are read as triplets o DNA is found in the nucleus  Heterozygous: having two different alleles of a particular o Protein synthesis happens on ribosome in cytoplasm gene (e.g.  Stainless steel fermentation vessel is filled with medium containing sugars and ammonium salts.  During exercise, tissues respire at a higher rate, the change in breathing volume and rate helps to keep CO2 concentration and pH at safe levels. They contain varying amount of FSH and LH. Water is support passes freely needed as a solvent plant  No cross walls  Factors influencing faster diffusion: so cells o Larger concentration gradient connect to o Higher temperature form tube o Smaller surface area  Lignin makes it 3.2 Osmosis strong and  Movement of water molecules from a region of high waterproof water potential to a region of low water potential, through a partially permeable membrane PALISADE Photo-  Regular shape CELL synthesizes so many can  Conc. o Replacement of worn out cells  Chromosome: a thread of DNA, made up of a string of o Asexual reproduction: in plants genes  Stem cells: unspecialized cells that divide by mitosis to  Gene: a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and produce daughter cells that can become specialized for codes for a specific protein. uterus size  In vitro fertilization: an ovum is fertilized outside a DISADVANTAGES  May be painful  More likely to develop woman’s body.  Optic nerve: carries impulses to the brain seeing in low intensity light (at night). The cotyledon is the food  Sepal: protect the flower bud. Biology – 0610 – IGCSE – 2010. Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O PAGE 16 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610  Collecting ducts: reabsorbs water into blood and store 5. commerce subjects, languages and the technology subjects. They use sugar for respiration and ammonium salts to make protein and  The dough is kept in a warm, moist environment (28°c). I hope you find them useful. Several  Contains sieve forms: o Overnutrition: balanced diet but eating too much of elements which allow everything sugars to pass from one o Undernutrition: having too little food cell to next downwards o Eating foods in incorrect proportions  Contains companion cells which provide energy for active 7.2 Effects of Malnutrition transport of sugars all over plant. 4.2 Structure of a DNA  Chromosomes are made of a molecule called DNA  Each chromosome is a very long molecule of tightly coiled DNA PAGE 6 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610 5.3 Graphs for Changes in Enzyme Activity  Warmed in ethanol until leaf is colourless to extract chlorophyll, which would mask observation EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF PH  Dipped in water briefly: to soften leaf  Leaf is placed on a white tile and iodine is added. The permeability of this part of the  Urethra: carried urine from bladder to the outside. animals, from air  Tissue fluid: made when plasma is squeezed out of 10.2 Body Defences capillaries. The fertilized ovum is implanted into the  Mother must be illness uterus. MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF CELLS together when energy 3.1 Diffusion available CILIATED Move and  This is the movement of molecules from a region of high CELL push  Tiny hairs concentration to a region of low concentration down the mucus called cilia concentration gradient. Transport in Plants; 9.  Structure of non-endospermic seed: Wind pollinated flower structure: grass 16.4 Functions  Formation of a seed: the zygote divides many times by mitosis to form and embryo. 16.8 Menstrual Cycle 16.7 Sexual Reproduction In Humans  Male reproductive system: o Testes: have many coiled tubes which produce sperm,  Day 1 to 5: and the cells between tubes produce testosterone. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. pond or river 7. o greater expectation for a variety of foods all year round  Predation: if predator population falls, the prey o smaller families increase demand for housing population will rise o greater demand for leisure and recreation space  Disease: causes organisms to die so a high death rate 20. o The pump passes the blood passes the dialysis tubing  Renal artery: brings wastes and water from blood which is semi-permeable therefore acting as a filter  Renal vein: reabsorbs water and useful molecules and o The surrounding liquid contains some salts, glucose leaves wastes behind but no urea so waste materials pass from blood by diffusion; 13.2 Structure of the Kidney o The ‘cleaned' blood returns to patient's circulation/body DIALYSIS TRANSPLANT  More expensive in the  Less expensive in the long run long run  Very disruptive (three 6-  Not very disruptive (only 8 hrs sessions per week) have to take  Do not need to find medication) kidney  Need a kidney  Need a machine & must  Can go anywhere, live near one anytime  Risk of rejection 14.  Respiration involves the action of enzymes in cells 12.1 Aerobic Respiration  Release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by  Cortex: contains Bowman’s capsules and coiled tubules  Ureter: carries urine from kidney to bladder the breakdown of food substances in the presence of  Medulla: contains loops of Henlé and collecting ducts  Loop of Henlé: selectively absorbs water/solutes oxygen. 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